OCCURRENCE OF BRASSINOSTEROIDS AND SOME BIOSYNTHETICALLY RELATED COMPOUNDS

(incomplete list, subjected to revision)

 

Species

Family

Brassinosteroids

References

Acutodesmus acuminatus (Lagerh.) Tsarenko

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Acutodesmus incrassatulus (Bohlin) Tsarenko

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Aegle marmelos Correa

Rutaceae

24-epibrassinolide

Sondhi et al., 2008

Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.

Betulaceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Plattner et al., 1986

Apium graveolens L.

Umbelliferae

2-deoxybrassinolide*

Schmidt et al., 1995c

Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Henyh.

Brassicaceae

brassinolideC, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, L, P, T, U, AJ, AK, AL

24-epibrassinolideB

3-epibrassinolideG*, T

2-deoxybrassinolide (= 7-oxatyphasterol)Z

3-epi-2-deoxybrassinolide (=7-oxateasterone)Z*

castasteroneA, A’, B, C, D, E, F, H, I, J, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, AA, AB, AD, AE, AF, AG, AH, AJ, AK

3-epicastasteroneT

28-norcastasteroneE, AI, AK

28-homocastasteroneAK

dolichosteroneAC

typhasterolA, C, D, F, I, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, V, W, AA, AB, AD, AF, AH

28-nortyphasterolE*

teasteroneD, F, I, L, N, O, P, W, Y, AK

typhasterolA’, AK

3-dehydroteasteroneF, Y

6-deoxocastasteroneA, A’, C, D, F, H, I, J, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, U, V, W, Y, AA, AB, AD, AE, AF, AG, AH

6-deoxotyphasterolA, A’, C, D, F, H, I, J, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, U, V, W, Y, AA, AB, AD, AE, AF, AG, AH

6-deoxoteasteroneC*,D, F, H, I, J, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, U, V, W, Y, AA, AB, AD, AE, AF, AG, AH

3-dehydro-6-deoxoteasteroneF, I, J, P, R, S, U, W, Y, AB, AD, AE, AF, AG, AH

23-O-b-D-glucopyranosylcastasteroneQ*

23-O-b-D-glucopyranosylbrassinolideQ*

6-deoxocathasteroneH, I, J, K, L, LA, M, O, P, R, S, U, V, W, AA, AB, AD, AE, AF, AG, AH

3-epi-6-deoxocathasteroneLA, Y, AB, AE

3-epi-6-deoxo-28-norcathasteroneLA*

26-norcastasteroneAI*

A) Fujioka et al., 1996

A’) Fujioka et al., 1997

B) Schmidt et al., 1997

C) Fujioka et al., 1998a

D) Noguchi et al., 1999a

E) Fujioka et al., 2000a

F) Noguchi et al., 2000

G) Konstantinova et al., 2001

H) Choe et al., 2001

I) Nomura et al., 2001

J) Bancos et al., 2002

K) Carland et al., 2002

L) Choe et al., 2002

LA) Fujioka et al., 2002a

M) He et al., 2003

N) Shimada et al., 2003b

O) Kim et al., 2005a

P) Nakamura et al., 2005

Q) Poppenberger et al., 2005

R) Takahashi et al., 2005

S) Turk et al., 2005

T) Antonchick et al., 2006

U) Bancos et al., 2006

V) Kim et al., 2006b

W) Lee et al., 2006a

Y) Ohnishi et al., 2006c

Z) Katsumata et al., 2008

AA) Carland et al., 2010

AB) Chung et al., 2010

AC) Lee et al., 2010a

AD) Beste et al., 2011

AE) Ohnishi et al., 2012

AF) Schneider et al., 2012

AG) Villiers et al., 2012

AH) Choi et al., 2013

AI) Son et al., 2013

AJ) Xin et al., 2013Ş

AK) Singh et al., 2014

AL) Lv et al., 2014

Areca catechu L.

Arecaceae

brassinolide

Wang & Lu, 2008

Atractylodes lancea

Compositae

brassinolide

Ren et al., 2014

Banksia grandis Willd.

Proteaceae

brassinolide

castasterone

cf. Takatsuto, 1994

Beta vulgaris L.

Chenopodiaceae

castasterone

24-epicastasterone

Schmidt et al., 1994

Brassica campestris var. pekinensis

Brassicaceae

brassinolideA, C, D, E

28-homobrassinolideC*, D

28-norbrassinolideB*, C, D

castasteroneA, C, D

28-homocastasteroneB*, C, D

28-norcastasteroneB*, C, D

A) Abe et al., 1982

B) Abe et al., 1983

C) Ikekawa et al., 1984b

D) Ikekawa & Takatsuto, 1984

E) Lv et al., 2014

Brassica juncea L.

Brassicaceae

castasteroneA

24-epibrassinolideA, B

A)    Kanwar et al., 2012

B)    Kanwar et al., 2013

Brassica napus L.

Brassicaceae

brassinolideA*, B, C

castasteroneA, C

28-norbrassinolideC

28-norcastasteroneC

A)    Grove et al., 1979

B)    Cao et al., 1987

C)    Ding et al., 2013a, b

Camellia sinensis (O) Kuntze

(= Thea sinensis L.)

Theaceae

28-homodolicholideA

24-epibrassinolideA

typhasterolA

6-deoxocastasteroneA

6-deoxotyphasterolA

3-dehydroteasteroneA

6-deoxo-28-norcastasteroneB

6-deoxo-28-nortyphasterolB

6-deoxo-28-norteasteroneB

3-dehydro-6-deoxo-28-norteasteroneB

6-deoxo-28-norcathasteroneB

A) Gupta et al., 2004

B) Bhardwaj et al., 2007

Cannabis sativa L.

Cannabaceae

castasterone

teasterone

Takatsuto et al., 1996b

Cassia tora L.

Fabaceae

brassinolideA, B

castasteroneA, B

28-norcastasteroneB

typhasterolB

teasteroneA, B

A) Park et al., 1993a

B) Park et al., 1994b

Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc

Fagaceae

brassinolideC, E

castasteroneA*, C, D, E

28-norcastasteroneB*, E

6-deoxocastasteroneD

A) Yokota et al., 1982a

B) Abe et al., 1983

C) Ikeda et al., 1983

D) Arima et al., 1984

E) Ikekawa et al., 1984b

Catharanthus roseus Don.

Apocynaceae

brassinolideA, B, C, D, E, G, H, J

castasteroneA, B, C, D, E, G, H, J, K

3-epicastasteroneG

typhasterolE, F, G, J

teasteroneE, F, G, I, J

6a-hydroxycastasteroneK

6-deoxocastasteroneH, I, J, K

6-deoxotyphasterolI, J

6-deoxoteasteroneJ

6-deoxo-3-dehydroteasteroneI

cathasteroneF*, K

6-deoxocathasteroneF*, L

3-epi-6-deoxocathasteroneF*, L

6-deoxo-28-norcathasteroneL*

3-epi-6-deoxo-28-norcathasteroneL*

A) Park et al., 1989

B) Yokota et al., 1990b

C) Choi et al., 1993

D) Suzuki et al., 1993a

E) Suzuki et al., 1994a

F) Fujioka et al., 1995b

G) Suzuki et al., 1995a

H) Choi et al., 1996

I) Choi et al., 1997

J) Fujioka & Sakurai, 1997a

K) Fujioka et al., 2000b

L) Fujioka et al., 2002a

Centella asiatica

 

castasterone

Sondhi et al., 2010

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P.A. Dang.

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Chlorella minutissima Fott et Nováková

Trebouxiophyceae

brassinolideA

castasteroneA

cathasteroneB

6-deoxo-24(?)-epicastasteroneB

A) Stirk et al., 2013

B) Stirk et al., 2014a

Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick

Trebouxiophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck

Trebouxiophyceae

brassinolideA, B, C, D

castasteroneA, B, C, D

typhasterolA, B, D

teasteroneA, B, D

6-deoxocastasteroneA, B, D

6-deoxotyphasterolA, B, D

6-deoxoteasteroneA, B, D

6-deoxo-3-dehydroteasterone D

A) Bajguz, 2009

B) Bajguz & Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, 2013

C) Stirk et al., 2013

D) Bajguz & Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, 2014

Chlorococcum ellipsoideum Deason et Bold

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Cistus hirsutum Theill.

Cistaceae

brassinolide

castasterone

cf. Takatsuto, 1994

Citrus sinensis Osbeck

Rutaceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Motegi et al., 1994

Citrus unshiu Marcov.

Rutaceae

brassinolide

castasterone

typhasterol

teasterone

cf. Takatsuto, 1994

Coccomyxa sp.

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Coelastrum microporum Nägeli

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.

Taxodiaceae

28-homobrassinolideC

dolicholideA, B, C

28-homodolicholideC

typhasterolB, C

3-dehydroteasteroneB, C

cryptolideC*

x-epi-28-homobrassinolideB (3 epimers)

x-epi-28-homodolicholideB

x-epi-23-dehydrobrassinolideB (4 epimers)

A) cf. Takatsuto, 1994

B) Yokota et al., 1998

C) Watanabe et al., 2000b

Cucurbita moschata Duchesne

Cucurbitaceae

brassinolideA, B

castasteroneA, B

A) Jang et al., 2000

B) Pachtong et al., 2006

Cupressus arizonica E. Greene

Cupressaceae

brassinolide

castasterone

28-homocastasterone

dolichosterone

typhasterol

teasterone

6-deoxocastasterone

3-dehydroteasterone

6-deoxotyphasterol*

3-dehydro-6-deoxoteasterone*

Griffiths et al., 1995b

Cystoseira myrica (S.G.Gmelin) C.Agardh

Sargassaceae

3-keto-22-epi-28-norcathasterone*

Hamdy et al., 2009

Daucus carota ssp. sativus L.

Apiaceae

brassinolideA, B

castasteroneA

24-epicastasteroneA

A) Schmidt et al., 1998

B) Lv et al., 2014

Desmodesmus armatus (R. Chodat) E. Hegewald

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Diospyros kaki Thunb.

Ebenaceae

castasterone

cf. Takatsuto, 1994

Distylium racemosum Sieb et Zucc.

Hammamelidaceae

brassinolideA, B, C

28-norbrassinolideA, B, C

castasteroneA, B, C

28-norcastasteroneA, B, C

typhasterolC

teasteroneC

3-dehydroteasteroneC*

A) Ikekawa et al., 1984b

B) Ikekawa & Takatsuto, 1984a

C) Abe et al., 1994

Dolichos lablab Adans.

Leguminosae

brassinolideC, D

dolicholideA*, D

28-homodolicholideC*, D

castasteroneC, D

dolichosteroneB*, D

28-homodolichosteroneB*, D

6-deoxocastasteroneD

6-deoxodolichosteroneD

A) Yokota et al., 1982b

B) Baba et al., 1983

C) Yokota et al., 1983b

D) Yokota et al., 1984

Echium plantagineum L.

Boraginaceae

brassinolide

castasterone

cf. Takatsuto, 1994

Ecklonia maxima

Phaeophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2014b

Elaeis guineenses Jacq. var. tenera

Palmae

brassinolide

Habib et al., 2012

Equisetum arvense L.

Equisetaceae

28-norbrassinolide

castasterone

dolichosterone

28-norcastasterone

Takatsuto et al., 1990

Eriobottrya japonica Lindl.

Rosaceae

castasterone

cf. Takatsuto, 1994

Erythronium japonicum Decne

Liliaceae

typhasterol

Yasuta et al., 1995

Eucalyptus calophylla R. Br.

Myrtaceae

brassinolide

cf. Takatsuto, 1994

Eucalyptus marginata Sn.

Myrtaceae

dolichosterone

cf. Takatsuto, 1994

Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.

Polygonaceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Takatsuto et al., 1990

Gingko biloba L.

Gingkoaceae

teasterone

Takatsuto et al., 1996a

Gyoerffyana humicola Kol et Chodat

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Gypsophyla perfoliata L.

Caryophyllaceae

24-epibrassinolide

Schmidt et al., 1996a

Helianthus annuus L.

Asteraceae

brassinolide

castasterone

28-norcastasterone

Takatsuto et al., 1989

Hordeum vulgare L.

Poaceae

castasterone

Dockter et al., 2014

Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L.) Lagerheim

Hydrodictyaceae

28-homocastasterone

24-epicastasterone*

Yokota et al., 1987a

Klebsormidium flaccidum (Kütz.) P.C. Silva, K.R. Mattox et W.H. Blackw.

Charophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Lilium elegans Thunb.

Araceae

brassinolide

castasterone

typhasterol

teasterone

Suzuki et al., 1994b

Lilium longiflorum Thunb.

Araceae

brassinolideA

castasteroneA

typhasterolA, B

teasteroneB, E

3-dehydroteasteroneB*

3-O-b-D-glucopyranosylteasteroneF*

teasterone 3-laurateD*, E

teasterone 3-myristateC*, D, E

A) Abe, 1991

B) Abe et al., 1994

C) Asakawa et al., 1994

D) Asakawa et al., 1996

E) Soeno et al., 2000a

F) Soeno et al., 2000b

Lolium perenne L.

Poaceae

25-methylcastasterone*

Taylor et al., 1993

Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.J. Roem

Cucurbitaceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Pachtong et al., 2007

Lychnis vicaria L.

Caryophyllaceae

24-epicastasterone

24-episecasterone*

Friebe et al., 1999

Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

Solanaceae

brassinolideF

24-epibrassinolideG

castasteroneA, B, C, D, F

24-epicastasteroneG

28-norcastasteroneA, D, E

typhasterolG

teasteroneG

6a-hydroxycastasteroneB*

6-deoxocastasteroneA, B, C, D, F

6-deoxo-24-epicastasteroneG

6-deoxo-28-norcastasteroneE

6-deoxotyphasterolB, D, F

6-deoxoteasteroneB, C, D, F

6-deoxo-3-dehydroteasteroneB, D, F

6-deoxo-28-nortyphasterolE*

6-deoxocathasteroneC, D, F

A) Yokota et al., 1997b

B) Bishop et al., 1999

C) Koka et al., 2000

D) Nomura et al., 2001

E) Yokota et al., 2001a

F) Nomura et al., 2005b

G) Wu et al., 2013

Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh.

Rosaceae

castasterone

typhasterol

teasterone

6-deoxocastasterone

6-deoxotyphasterol

6-deoxo-3-dehydroteasterone

6-deoxoteasterone

6-deoxocathasterone

Pereira-Netto et al., 2009

Marchantia polymorpha L.

Marchantiaceae

castasterone

Kim et al., 2002d

Monoraphidium contortum (Thur.) Komárková-Legnerová

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Myrmecia bisecta Reisigl

Trebouxiophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Nautococcus mamillatus Korschikov

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Nicotiana tabacum L.

Solanaceae

castasterone

teasterone

6-deoxocastasterone

6-deoxotyphasterol

6-deoxo-3-dehydroteasterone

6-deoxoteasterone

6-deoxocathasterone

Ohnishi et al., 2006b

Ornithopus sativus Brot.

Fabaceae

castasteroneA, B

24-epicastasteroneA, B

6-deoxocastasteroneB

6-deoxo-28-norcastasteroneB*

6-deoxo-24-epicastasteroneB*

A) Schmidt et al., 1993a

B) Spengler et al., 1995

Oryza sativa L.

Poaceae

brassinolideC, G

24-epibrassinolideQ, S

castasteroneA, B, D, E, H, I, J, K, L, M, O, P, Q, R

24-epicastasteroneS

dolichosteroneA, B, S

typhasterolH, I, J, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S

28-homotyphasterolF*

teasteroneD, E, H, I, J, M, N, P, Q, R, S

28-homoteasteroneF

6-deoxocastasteroneD, E, F, H, I, J, K, L, M, P, R

6-deoxo-24-epicastasteroneS

6-deoxotyphasterolH, I, J, K, L, M, N, P, R

3-dehydroteasteroneP

3-dehydro-6-deoxoteasteroneH, J, K, M, N, P, R

6-deoxoteasteroneH, I, J, K, L, M, N, R

6-deoxocathasteroneH, I, J, K, L, M, N, R

3-epi-6-deoxocathasteroneM

A) Abe et al., 1984b

B) Ikekawa & Takatsuto, 1984

C) Abe, 1991

D) Park et al., 1993d

E) Park et al., 1994a

F) Abe et al., 1995a

G) Shim et al., 1998

H) Mori et al., 2002a

I) Tanabe et al., 2005

J) Nakamura et al., 2006a

K) Sakamoto et al., 2006b

L) Kim et al., 2008a

M) Wu et al., 2008

N) Sakamoto et al., 2012

O) Ding et al., 2013a, b

P) Li et al., 2013

Q) Xin et al., 2013a

R) Asahina et al., 2014

S) Wang et al., 2014

Perilla frutescens Britton.

Labiatae

28-homodolicholideA

castasteroneA, B

A) Park et al., 1993b

B) Park et al., 1994a

Petunia hybrida line W138

Solanaceae

brassinolide A,

castasterone A, B

typhasterol A,

teasterone A,

6-deoxocastasterone A, B

6-deoxotyphasterol A, B

6-deoxoteasterone A, B

3-dehydroteasterone A,

6-deoxo-3-dehydroteasterone A, B

cathasterone A,

6-deoxocathasterone A, B

3-epi-6-deoxocathasterone A, B

A) Verhoef et al., 2013

B) Verhoef et al., 2014

Phalaris canariensis L.

Poaceae

castasterone

teasterone

Shimada et al., 1996

Pharbitis nil (L.) Choisy

Convolvulaceae

castasterone

typhasterol

teasterone

6-deoxocastasterone

6-deoxotyphasterol

6-deoxoteasterone

6-deoxocathasterone

Suzuki et al., 2003b

Pharbitis purpurea Voigt

Convolvulaceae

castasterone

28-norcastasterone

Suzuki et al., 1985

Phaseolus vulgaris L.

Fabaceae

brassinolideE, G

dolicholideA, E, G

castasteroneA, E, G

dolichosteroneE, G

25-methyldolichosteroneB*, G

2-epicastasteroneC*, G, N

3-epicastasteroneC, G, O

3,24-diepicastasteroneC*, G

2,3-diepicastasteroneC*, G, O

2-epi-25-methyldolichosteroneC*, G

2,3-diepi-25-methyldolichosteroneC*, G

1b-hydroxycastasteroneG*

3-epi-1a-hydroxycastasteroneG*

typhasterolH

teasteroneH

28-homocastasteroneK

28-homotyphasterolK

2-deoxy-25-methyldolichosteroneD*, G, M

3-epi-2-deoxy-25-methyldolichosteroneD*, G, M

6-deoxocastasteroneA*, E, G

6-deoxodolichosteroneA*, E, G

6-deoxo-28-homodolichosteroneE*, G

6-deoxo-25-methyldolichosteroneG*

3-epi-6-deoxocastasteroneG*, L

23-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-25-

methyldolichosteroneE*, G

23-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-2-epi-

-25-methyldolichosteroneG*

23-dehydro-2-epicastasteroneJ*

6-deoxocathasteroneI

brassinolide derivativesE (2)

x-homobrassinolideE (1 isomer)

dolicholide derivativesE (4)

x-dolicholideE (1 isomer)

x-homodolicholideE

x-homodolicholide derivativesE (3)

x-castasteroneE (4 isomers)

x-hydroxycastasteroneE (1 isomer)

x-28-homocastasteroneE (2 isomers)

x-homodolichosteroneE (3 isomers)

x-6-deoxo-28-homodolichosteroneE (1 isomer)

A) Yokota et al., 1983c

B) Kim et al., 1987

BA) Takahashi et al., 1987

BB) Yokota & Takahashi, 1987

BC) Yokota et al., 1987b

C) Yokota et al., 1987d

D) Kim, 1991

E) Kim et al., 2000d

F) Joo et al., 2002

G) Hwang et al., 2006

H) Kim et al., 2006c

I) Hwang et al., 2007b

J) Park et al., 2009a

K) Park et al., 2009b

L) Lee et al., 2011b

Phoenix dactylifera L.

Arecaceae

24-epicastasterone

Zaki et al., 1993

Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.

Pinaceae

castasterone

typhasterol

Yokota et al., 1985

Pinus silvestris Lour.

Pinaceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Kim et al., 1990

Pinus thubergii Parl.

Pinaceae

castasterone

typhasterol

Yokota et al., 1983a

Pisum sativum L.

Fabaceae

brassinolideA, B, C, E

2-deoxybrassinolideA

castasteroneA, B, C, D, E

typhasterolA, B, C

6-deoxocastasteroneA, B, C, D, E

3-dehydroteasteroneC, D

6-deoxotyphasterolC, D, E

6-deoxoteasteroneC, D, E

6-deoxo-3-dehydroteasteroneE

6-deoxocathasteroneC, E

x-hydroxybrassinolideA

x-6-deoxocastasteroneA (1 isomer)

A) Yokota et al., 1996a

B) Nomura et al., 1997b

C) Nomura et al., 2001

D) Nomura et al., 2004

E) Nomura et al., 2007

Poloidion didymos Pascher

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Protococcus viridis C. Agardh

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Protosiphon botryoides G.A. Klebs

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Psophocarpus tetragonolobus DC

Fabaceae

brassinolide

castasterone

28-homocastasterone

6-deoxocastasterone

6-deoxo-28-homocastasterone

cf. Takatsuto, 1994

Raphanus sativus L.

Brassicaceae

brassinolideA

castasteroneA

teasteroneB

28-homoteasteroneB*

A) Schmidt et al., 1991

B) Schmidt et al., 1993b

Raphidocelis subcapitata (Korshikov) G. Nygaard, J. Komárek, Kristiansen et Skulberg

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Rheum rhabarbarum L.

Polygonaceae

brassinolide

castasterone

24-epicastasterone

Schmidt et al., 1995a

Robinia pseudo-acacia L.

Fabaceae

castasterone

typhasterol

6-deoxocastasterone

Abe et al., 1995b

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, strain WAT21

Saccharomycetaceae

castasterone

Kim et al., 2010c

Scotiellopsis terrestris (Reisigl) Puncoch. et Kalina

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Secale cereale L.

Poaceae

castasteroneA, C

28-homocastasteroneA

28-norcastasteroneA

2-epicastasteroneC

3-epicastasteroneC

typhasterolA

teasteroneA

secasteroneA*, B, C

2,3-diepisecasteroneB*, C

secasterolB*

6-deoxocastasteroneA

A) Schmidt et al., 1995b

B) Antonchick et al., 2003

C) Antonchick et al., 2005

Solidago altissima L.

Asteraceae

brassinolide

cf. Takatsuto, 1994

Spongiochloris excentrica Starr

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Sporolobus stapfianum Gand.

Graminae

brassinolide

dolicholide

castasterone

Sasse et al., 1998

Stichococcus bacillaris Nägeli

Trebouxiophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Stigeoclonium nanum (Dillwyn) Kütz.

Chlorophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Thea sinensis L.

Theaceae

brassinolideB, D

castasteroneA, B, D

28-homocastasteroneA*, D

28-norcastasteroneA*, D

typhasterolC

teasteroneC*

A) Abe et al., 1983

B) Morishita et al., 1983

C) Abe et al., 1984a

D) Ikekawa & Takatsuto, 1984

Triticum aestivum L.

Poaceae

brassinolideB

24-epibrassinolideB

28-homobrassinolideB

castasteroneA, B

28-homocastasteroneB

typhasterolA

teasteroneA

3-dehydroteasteroneA*

6-deoxocastasteroneA

x-castasteroneA (1 isomer)

x-6-deoxocastasteroneA (2 isomers)

A) Yokota et al., 1994

B) Janeczko & Swaczynová, 2010b

Tulipa gesneriana L.

Liliaceae

typhasterol

cf. Takatsuto, 1994

Typha latifolia Mey.

Typhaceae

typhasterol*

Schneider et al., 1983

Ulothrix sp.

Ulvophyceae

brassinolide

castasterone

Stirk et al., 2013

Vicia faba L.

Fabaceae

brassinolideA, B

24-epibrassinolideB*

castasteroneA, B, C

dolichosterone

28-norcastasteroneB

typhasterolC

6-deoxoteasteroneC

6-deoxotyphasterolC

6-deoxocastasteroneC

6-deoxocathasteroneC

A) Park et al., 1987b

B) Ikekawa et al., 1988

C) Fukuta et al., 2004

Zea mays L.

Poaceae

castasteroneA, B, E

28-norcastasteroneB, D

typhasterolA, E

teasteroneA, B

6-deoxocastasteroneB, E

6-deoxoteasteroneC, E

6-deoxo-3-dehydroteasteroneE

6-deoxotyphasterolC, E

6-deoxocathasteroneC, E

A) Suzuki et al., 1986

B) Park et al., 1995

C) Kim et al., 2005e

D) Kim et al., 2006d

E) Hartwig et al., 2011

Zinnia elegans Jacq.

Asteraceae

castasteroneA, B

typhasterolA, B

6-deoxocastasteroneA, B

6-deoxotyphasterolA, B

6-deoxoteasteroneA, B

6-deoxocathasteroneB

A) Yamamoto et al., 2001

B) Yamamoto et al., 2007

 

* first reported occurrence of the natural product

 

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Yokota T, Baba J, Koba S, Takahashi N. 1984. Purification and separation of eight steroidal plant growth regulators from Dolichos lablab seeds. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 48: 2529-2534**

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Yokota T, Nomura T, Nakayama M. 1997b. Identification of brassinosteroids that appear to be derived from campesterol and cholesterol in tomato shoots. Plant and Cell Physiology 38: 1291-1294**

Yokota T, Sato T, Takeuchi Y, Nomura T, Uno K, Watanabe T, Takatsuto S. 2001a. Roots and shoots of tomato produce 6-deoxo-28-norcathasterone, 6-deoxo-28-nortyphasterol and 6-deoxo-28-norcastasterone, possible precursors of 28-norcastasterone. Phytochemistry 58: 233-238**

Yokota T, Takahashi N. 1987. Isolation of brassinosteroids as plant growth regulators from kidney beans. Japan Kokai Tokkyo Kogyo JP 63,216,896 [88,216,896] [Chemical Abstracts 111:4522]

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(Updated October 9, 2014; uploaded February 24, 2017)